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Benefits and risks of circumcision
Benefits and risks of circumcision
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Benefits and risks of circumcision

    Chinese Shang Ring adult male

circumcision (SC) is a safe and effective procedure which is easy to learn and to perform. By a specially designed small

device, male circumcision (MC) can be performed in 5 min. Compared with conventional

adult MC (CC), SC has shorter operation time, less blood loss, less pain score, higher appearance satisfaction rate, and

lower complication rate. SC was first developed in China. As recent studies have demonstrated that MC reduced the risk of

acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection via vaginal intercourse in African countries, SC was introduced into

Africa to fight HIV. Other sexually transmitted diseases such as human papillomavirus infection may also be prevented by SC.

In conclusion, Chinese Shang Ring, a small device, provides an easy, quick, safe, and effective method to perform adult MC.


    Circumcision is an operation to remove a male’s foreskin. It is one of the oldest and most common surgical procedures. A

male may undergo this procedure for religious, social, medical, or cultural reasons.


        The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) encourage male circumcision on the basis that it appears to reduce the risk of HIV

infection during vaginal sex. However, not all health authorities agree, and the recommendations remain somewhat

        Adult circumcision device is fairly commonly used in

the United States. In fact, according to the CDC, 
            58.3%Trusted Source
         of U.S. newborns underwent circumcision in 2010.
        It is less common in other Western countries, however. In the United Kingdom, for example, only

around 8.5% of males are circumcised.
        This article will discuss what to expect during the procedure itself, as well as some possible benefits and risks.

            What is circumcision?

        Circumcision involves the removal of the foreskin of the penis. The foreskin is the shroud of skin that, when gently

pulled back, uncovers the head of the penis.
        The surgery is relatively simple. A healthcare professional will free the foreskin from the head of the penis and, in

newborns, clip it off in a procedure that only takes a few minutes. In adults, they will remove the foreskin with a

scalpel, and it takes around 30 minutes.
        They will then either cauterize or stitch the wound with dissolvable sutures.

        The first circumcisions may have taken place around 15,000 years ago. The procedure then slowly spread

across a variety of cultures, especially in the Middle East.
        It may have become popular in the ancient world as a public health measure and a way of preventing

balanitis. Balanitis leads to swelling and pain in the head of the penis.
        This condition might have been more common in ancient societies due to sand building up under the foreskin.
        Circumcision became popular in the Western world in the late 19th century, when people began performing the operation

in an attempt to prevent masturbation. Many believed that masturbation was associated with conditions such as epilepsy,

paralysis, tuberculosis, and insanity.
        However, there was little compelling evidence to support these claims. As the newly formed national healthcare

systems started facing rising costs, they stopped recommending the procedure.
        In the U.S., however, it has remained a relatively common practice, and some major health authorities do still

encourage it.


        Why circumcise newborns?

    A number of factors are associated with neonatal circumcision.

    The most common are:

            health considerations

    Some studies have suggested that circumcision 
        reducesTrusted Source
     the risk of urinary tract infection, but more recent findings have contradicted this, with some suggesting that it

might actually increase the risk.

    Evidence has indicated a lower risk of some sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including syphilis.

Circumcised males, using male

circumcision device
, also appear to be less likely to contract herpes or HIV.

    In very rare cases, balanitis or phimosis can develop in an uncircumcised male. With these conditions, the foreskin

cannot retract. This requires surgical treatment.

    Cancer of the penis is extremely rare, but it appears to be slightly 
        more commonTrusted Source
     in males with a high body mass index (BMI), males with a history of smoking, males who are uncircumcised, and those

with a combination of these factors.


    Adult circumcision

        Circumcision is less common in adults than in children. It takes longer and is likely to involve more tissue trauma.

It may also cause more psychological trauma than it does in newborns.
        However, it may reduce the risk of certain conditions, including phimosis, paraphimosis, and balanitis.
        Phimosis is the inability to pull back the foreskin, leading to pain and urinary problems. It can occur if a

male is born with a tight foreskin, or due to scarring, infection, or inflammation. Treatment options include topical

corticosteroids or circumcision.
        Paraphimosis occurs when the foreskin becomes stuck behind the head of the penis and restricts blood flow to the

end of the penis. It can result from a medical intervention, such as the use of a catheter. Paraphimosis is a medical

emergency. Without treatment, gangrene can result. Treatment aims to reduce the swelling, but most doctors recommend

circumcision after recovery, in order to prevent the condition reoccurring.
        Balanitis occurs when the head of the penis becomes inflamed or swollen. This may be due to an STI, thrush, skin

irritation, or another skin condition. It is uncommon in circumcised males. Circumcision can prevent balanitis reoccurring.

            Circumcision and HIV
        According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there is “compelling evidence” to suggest that

adult circumcision device reduces the risk of contracting

HIV during vaginal sex by 
            60%Trusted Source
        However, they point out that circumcision will offer only partial protection, and they urge people to use barrier

methods such as condoms as well.
        The higher chance of infection may be because the foreskin becomes more prone to splits and ruptures during

intercourse, allowing pathogens to enter the bloodstream.
        Another possibility is that the space between the penis and the foreskin might provide an environment in which a

virus can survive for a period of time, raising the risk of infection for the individual and their next partner.
        Some argue that the U.S. has a relatively high rate of HIV despite high circumcision rates. In addition, the results

of studies in Africa and Asia associating circumcision with HIV prevention, mainly in heterosexual populations, may not

translate to the U.S.



    Circumcision is a relatively safe procedure, and severe complications are rare.

    However, the following risks are possible:

            The surgeon cuts the foreskin too short or leaves it too long.
            The wound does not heal properly.
            Blood loss and hemorrhage occur.
            Meatal stenosis occurs. This condition causes the urinary stream to be deflected upward, making it difficult to

            Damage affects the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine through the penis. This can make urination

            In very rare cases, there may be accidental amputation of the head of the penis.
            Blood infection or poisoning, known as septicemia, may develop.
            The foreskin left behind might reattach to the penis and require further minor surgery.
            There may be a decrease in the sensation of the penis, especially during intercourse.

    Complications are 
        more likely Trusted Source

            an older male undergoes the procedure
            the procedure takes place in unsterile conditions
            inexperienced or untrained providers carry out the procedure
            the procedure takes place in a traditional manner, as a rite of passage

    If a qualified medical professional carries out the procedure in a sterile environment, the risks are minimal.

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